So-called eco-vandals are to be fined up to 60,000 euros under a bill that became law Thursday.
Climate activists have attacked several well-known monuments in Italy in recent years.
The law aims to stop this form of protest, levying fines of 20-60,000 euros for anyone who defaces the cultural heritage.
A judge on Wednesday indicted three members of Italy’s Ultima Generazione (Last Generation, UG) climate group for spraying wash-offable paint over Maurizio Cattelan’s L.O.V.E. sculpture in Milan a year ago.
The stunt is part of a long series of controversial acts of civil disobedience the UG group has staged to draw attention to the climate emergency, including several instances of blocking traffic and pouring easy-to-wash-off paint over the protective shields of artworks and famous monuments.